causes of caste inequality

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The role of caste in labour market matching is particularly critical, since it is in this domain that the most vigorous attempts to redress past inequities have been undertaken, principally through the reservation policy. Finally, Madheswaran and Attewell contribute an econometric analysis of the National Sample Survey of India, which shows a 15 per cent wage penalty for scheduled caste and scheduled tribe respondents, compared to otherwise equivalent higher caste workers. These measures are supposed to enhance the capacity of groups historically subjected to discrimination to develop businesses of their own and enhance their employability in industries and in occupations that pay well. This is how the inequality between the cast was accepted by many people in india. This is done directly or indirectly. The spread of the feeling of casteism became easy through mass media, such as newspapers, magazines, etc. Labour market discrimination can transpire in the domain of hiring, or in wages, or through working conditions, and opportunities for upward mobility. In all instances, we speak here of restrictions (formal and informal) on the entry of subordinate groups to the market and/or through selective inclusion with unequal treatment. Copyright 10. Another factor behind the rise in U.S. income inequality is that earnings have become less equal since the late 1970s. Caste System: Meaning, Features, Causes, Effects, and Solutions Meaning Caste system can be defined as a social structure according to the class of people, which gets decided by their birth. Instead, as Ambedkar (1936) pointed out long ago, the jobs to which untouchables are restricted engender aversion, ill will and the desire to evade. The employment-category wise break up of social groups provided by the 2011-12 NSSO also point to the stark inequality in socio-economic status between SCs (and STs) and other castes. for suggesting this special section and for putting together Economic and Political Weekly The policy of economic empowerment is essentially directed towards improving the ownership of assets like agricultural land, capital for business, entrepreneurial skills and education. Scoville, James G L (1991): ‘Towards a Model of Caste Economy’ in James G Scoville (ed), Status Influences in Third World Labour Markets, Caste, Gender and Custom, Berlin and New York. Caste has long been used to regulate economic life in India [for a thorough historical treatment see Dirks 2001]. Most contentious is the notion that the policy which has governed the allocation of places in higher education, public employment, and government itself should be extended to the private sector. The members of the caste have to face various problems and as a result, a need to provide security on com­munal basis was felt. Jobs regarded as socially degrading, almost by definition, reduce the social status of those who hold them – scavenging being the classic example. Further not all markets are competitive. Clearly, dalits who lack educational opportunity in childhood and adolescence will be greatly disadvantaged compared to those who have them (dalit and non-dalit). highlighting the ways in which caste persists as a system of inequality that burdens the Indian The root cause of gender inequality in Indian society lies in its patriarchy system. This means that the government should have in priority overhauled the agricultural sector. Dalit students bring weaker connections to the task and are far less likely to find jobs in the private sector. In this introduction, we provide a context for the empirical papers, dwelling on the framework of social exclusion. Thorat, Sukhadeo, Aryama, and Prashant Negi (2005): Reservation and Private Sector, India, Rawat, Delhi. Further not all markets are competitive. Sen, Amartya (2000): ‘Social Exclusion: Concept, Application, and Scrutiny’, Working Paper, Social Development Paper No 1, Asian Development Bank, Bangkok, June. While many Black and low-income families have seen their health and livelihoods at increased risk, wealthier and disproportionately white families and communities have been better able to weather the economic fallout—a stark reflection of racial wealth inequality. iv. For those who take the risk and succeed become richer than others. Given the virtues of increasing economic efficiency and growth, as well as reducing poverty and inequality, there is a compelling interest in diminishing the market discrimination. This will lead to improvement of behaviour between different sexes simultaneously, with which casteism will be actively refuted. This guide concerns the systematic analysis of social inequalities. Labour and capital fail to move from one occupation to another even when the wage rate and rate of return (on investment) is higher in alternative fields. Without intervention, classically untouchables, or dalits, who lie at the very bottom of the social order, find themselves restricted to the most despised occupations and the lowest wages. In short, social exclusion – in its more specific manifestation as discrimination – refers to the processes through which groups are wholly or partially restricted from full participation in the economic, educational, and social institutions that define social membership. There are many causes of casteism. Before publishing your articles on this site, please read the following pages: 1. India today is caught in the grip of a querulous debate over developing reservation policies for groups and communities suffering from economic exclusion associated with caste, gender and religious identity. This longitudinal project, which is still ongoing, shows that despite similar qualifications, the two groups expect and, true to form, experience divergent outcomes in the labour market. The view that inefficiency, and therefore pressure on firms, will self-correct discriminatory behaviour argues in favour of strengthening competitive markets as the solution to this vexing problem. ii. One was expected to follow the path of their ancestors and stick to their hereditary based profession. Ambedkar, B R (1987): (first published 1936), ‘Philosophy of Hinduism’ in Vasant Moon (ed), Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar: Writings and Speeches, Department of Education, Government of Maharashtra, Bombay, Vol 3, pp 1-94. In the papers that follow this overview, we focus on contemporary patterns of discrimi nation in the formal labour market, using methods originally developed to study discrimination in the United States. This is far from the model of a perfectly competitive market economy [Birdsall and Sabot 1991]. Only if the magnitude of the social costs (in terms of social isolation and deprivation), economic costs (transaction and enforcement) begin to outweigh the economic gains (profit and surplus extraction), are we likely to see significant change in the shape of the caste system. The papers are the fruit of a two-year collaboration between researchers at the Indian Institute for Dalit Studies and sociologists supported by Princeton University’s Institute for International and Regional Studies. Ambedkar, B R (1987): (first published 1936), ‘Philosophy of Hinduism’ in Vasant Moon (ed), Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar: Writings and Speeches, Department of Education, Government of Maharashtra, Bombay, Vol 3, pp 1-94. higher caste individuals and involuntary unemployment for those at the bottom. They cast some doubt on whether the natural operation of the market will be sufficient to correct this inefficiency in labour allocation. The consequences of discrimination can lead to deprivation indirectly, through passive discrimination in which discouragement and lower self-confidence results in poor performance, or through direct routes that limit access to income or education that is mobility enhancing. Haan, De Arjan (1997): ‘Poverty and Social Exclusion: A Comparison of Debates on Deprivation’, Poverty Research Unit, Working Paper No 2, University of Sussex, Brighton. Inequality: The society gets segregated and inequality prevails among people. Caste System and Social Inequality in Nepal By Krishna Prasad Subedi, COEX (11/19/2016) Summary The caste system is a social structure that is determined by birth. Casteism proves to be a threat to social order, stability, peace and harmony, in the society. It may cause a hurdle to the upliftment of women because of lack of encouragement from caste-conscious groups. Active exclusion through. In market economies, occupational immobility is the result as restrictions on access to land, labour, capital, credit, education, and other inputs and services necessary for commercial activity provide for differential capacities to participate. These investments are a form of reparations – to lower castes, especially those formerly deemed untouchable, or to other backward castes, women and some religious minority groups – in recognition of the denial of equal economic rights from which they have suffered in the past. Hence the caste system as a form of economic organisation lacks the elements that lead to the optimum use of resources. Economic and Political Weekly October 13, 2007 even for highly qualified dalits and Muslims. Causes of Casteism: There are many causes of casteism. Dominant groups use discrimination to exercise control over minority groups. Disinterring the Report of National Commission – (1987): (first published 1936), ‘The Hindu Social Order: Its Essential Features’ in Vasant Moon (ed), Dr Babasaheb Ambedkar Writings and Speeches, Vol 3, pp 95-115. Caste and Economic Discrimination Casteism is one of the rural social problems, which is very peculiar to the Indian soci­ety. Only if the magnitude of the social costs (in terms of social isolation and deprivation), economic costs (transaction and enforcement) begin to outweigh the economic gains (profit and surplus extraction), are we likely to see significant change in the shape of the caste system. Rich inheri­tance gives them a start in life and if they are reasonably prudent, they keep up the lead. Disclaimer 9. Thus, casteism proves to be a hindrance to democracy. The first paper, by Thorat and Attewell, provides the results of a field experiment which found that low caste and Muslim applicants who are equally or better qualified than high caste applicants are significantly less likely to pass through hiring screens among employers in the modern, formal sector in India. What these four papers establish, is serious evidence of continued discriminatory barriers in the formal, urban labour market In order to focus as clearly as possible on discrimination, and screen out the most vexing inequalities in human capital, they focus on the formal labour market and the most highly qualified job seekers – graduates of the most prestigious universities in India. In the papers that follow this overview, we focus on contemporary patterns of discrimi nation in the formal labour market, using methods originally developed to study discrimination in the United States. We are grateful to Katherine Newman and Sukhadeo Thorat It also becomes an obstacle in achieving social mobility. Taken as a whole, they document widespread patterns of discrimination and underlying attitudinal orientations – based on caste and religion – that contribute to inequality in employment and wages in the modern, formal sector of India’s economy. Market failures are created via economic discrimination as an inefficient allocation of labour among firms emerges, and wages recede below the marginal product for workers of discriminated groups. There is a reasonable degree of consensus over the legitimacy of this strategy. This results in hindering the technology and industrial efficiency. This legislation has proven to be contentious and has recently generated street protests as reservations have been extended to professional education (e g, medical school). Market based discrimination has received considerable attention by scholars of race in the US [Pager 2003] and by scholars of caste in India [Weisskopf 2004; Thorat et al 2005]. Clearly, dalits who lack educational opportunity in childhood and adolescence will be greatly disadvantaged compared to those who have them (dalit and non-dalit). SUKHADEO THORAT, KATHERINE S NEWMAN Yet reaching the pinnacle of what Indian education has to offer is not sufficient to create full and open opportunity. In the Indian context, exclusion revolves around institutions that discriminate, isolate, shame, and deprive subordinate groups on the basis of identities like caste, religion and gender. Finally, Madheswaran and Attewell contribute an econometric analysis of the National Sample Survey of India, which shows a 15 per cent wage penalty for scheduled caste and scheduled tribe respondents, compared to otherwise equivalent higher caste workers. Far from disappearing as the economy reference to the caste system. Unable to interact freely with others in the market, dalits find themselves simultaneously res tricted in the economic sense and repressed as citizens, as they are – in practice, even if not in theory – denied civil rights (freedom of expression, equality before the law), political rights (the ability to exercise political power) and socio-economic rights (claims to property, employment and education). It is critical to take note of the particular form of exclusion in the Indian context, where ascriptive rather than achieved characteristics are the basis of exclusion. Yet we should not move so fast in declaring the private sector free of discrimination, nor should we assume that human capital diffentials alone explain the “lack of advancement” that The Economist notes among the lower castes. Casteism divides society into different segments and results in conflicts and tensions in and between these segments. @idsnupdates Eliminate caste discrimination: Caste discrimination is … The current pattern of inter-group inequality closely matches the economic scheme of the caste system. Gender inequality in India is a multifaceted issue that concerns men and women. Prohibited Content 3. Deshpande and Newman contribute a third paper focusing on the experiences of equally qualified dalit and non-dalit cohortmates from three major universities, who enter the labour market at the same time. Without intervention, classically untouchables, or dalits, who lie at the very bottom of the social order, find themselves restricted to the most despised occupations and the lowest wages. Email: skthorat@hotmail.com knewman@princeton.edu As the Jodhka and Newman paper makes clear, this is firmly opposed by private sector leaders, not only because they prefer to avoid any form of regulation over hiring, but also because they are convinced that there is no problem of caste or religious prejudice in modern India. For the low caste untouchables on the other hand, the restriction against claiming more prestigious occu pations will compel them to remain involuntarily unemployed. The first paper, by Thorat and Attewell, provides the results of a field experiment which found that low caste and Muslim applicants who are equally or better qualified than high caste applicants are significantly less likely to pass through hiring screens among employers in the modern, formal sector in India. Content Filtrations 6. Hence we have limited insight about the forms and nature of economic discrimi nation associated with group identities. iii. Plagiarism Prevention 4. That the Indian educational system has a long way to go to achieve caste, class and regional parity is beyond dispute. They make use of research techniques pioneered in the US to measure discrimination in quantitative terms and to identify attitudes and beliefs through qualitative means that contribute to discriminatory patterns of hiring on the part of participants in the matching process (employers and job seekers). The role of caste in labour market matching is particularly critical, since it is in this domain that the most vigorous attempts to redress past inequities have been undertaken, principally through the reservation policy. Amartya Sen (2000) has drawn worldwide attention to the dimensions of social exclusion. Unless we disaggregate the income and expenditure data by caste, sex and ethnicity, it will be hard to address causes of inequality. Rikke Nöhrlind, executive director, International Dalit Solidarity Network (IDSN), Copenhagen, Denmark. V. Provision of cultural and economic equality among different sections of the society reduces the chances of jealousy and competition. This paper provides a theoretical introduction to the study of discrimination with particular A community-based system of enforcement regulates caste privileges by means of social ostracism, violence, and economic penalties that find their justification in elements of Hindu religion [Lal 1989; Ambedkar 1936 and 1987].Although strictly speaking a Hindu tradition, castes have emerged in religions that provide no theological justification for practices of exclusion or pollution, such as Islam, Sikkism, and other religions of India, chiefly because low caste Hindus have attempted to escape the confines of their ascriptive identities through religious conversion. Market failure associated with economic discrimination leads to lower economic growth, inequality in income, poverty and inter-group conflict. This is far from the model of a perfectly competitive market economy [Birdsall and Sabot 1991]. vi. Women‟s exploitation is an age old cultural This definition captures three distinguishing features of social exclusion: it affects culturally defined groups, is embedded in social relations between them, and results in deprivation or low income for those excluded [Hann 1997; Sen 2000]. Fixed economic rights defined by caste, with rigid barriers against change, leads to “forced exclusion” – to use Sen’s term – of one caste from the economic rights of another. The poor gets poorer and the richer gets richer. These observations – coupled with the shrinking size of the public sector – have prompted some advocates to argue in favour of extending reservations or some form of affirmative action to the private sector. iii. Caste and Economie Discrimination: Causes, Consequences and Remedies This paper provides a theoretical introduction to the study of discrimination with particular reference to the caste system. In particular, the earnings of high-skilled labor relative to low-skilled labor have increased. Instead, as Ambedkar (1936) pointed out long ago, the jobs to which untouchables are restricted engender aversion, ill will and the desire to evade. For this, it is necessary to try and develop new attitudes in the people. Moreover, because it is built on a foundation of restriction, the caste system fosters inter-group conflict that is socially harmful and diverts human resources to destructive ends. What, then, can be done? Therefore pressure on firms, will self-correct discriminatory behaviour. For copies write to: Circulation Manager Market discrimination will persist, if all firms practice discrimination. For the low caste untouchables on the other hand, the restriction against claiming more prestigious occu pations will compel them to remain involuntarily unemployed. Accounting for ‘Us’ and ‘Them’: It sets the stage for the four empirical papers that follow, by He draws distinctions between situations in which individuals are kept out (or left out) and circumstances of inclusion (including forced inclusion) on deeply unfavourable terms. Exclusion involves both the act of restricting access and the consequences that follow, principally forms of deprivation. The dignity of physical labour – a key aspect of jobs at the bottom of the status hierarchy – is nearly absent in the work ethic of the caste system and hence impacts the incentive to work in adverse ways. some other causes of economic inequality may be; 1.Some people stick to sure paid jobs( no risk salaries eg teaching,police etc which are low paying) and fear high risk but highly earning jobs like businesses. Casteism as a Major Rural Social Problem: Meaning, Causes, Solution and Suggestion. In 1820, the ratio between the income of the top and bottom 20 percent of the world's population was three to one. Active exclusion through India today is caught in the grip of a querulous debate over developing reservation policies for groups and communities suffering from economic exclusion associated with caste, gender and religious identity. Social inequality refers to the different or discriminatory treatment that one person has towards another, because of their social class, religion, gender, race, nationality, among other things. Not surpri singly, we find at the bottom of the caste system individuals and social groups in disproportionate numbers, mired in poverty. Moreover, because it is built on a foundation of restriction, the caste system fosters inter-group conflict that is socially harmful and diverts human resources to destructive ends. on Labour:A Marxist Perspective – Anjan Chakrabarti, Byasdeb Dasgupta This is a struggle between social ideals, but fundamentally as well, one that is based on disagreements about the empirical state of markets. The poor gets poorer and the richer gets richer. Higher caste Hindus would generally prefer to opt out of the market for some time than to take up an occupation defined as polluting. Dirks, Nicholas (2001): Castes of Mind: Colonialism and the Making of Modern India, Princeton University Press. Prevalence of casteism shows that the people are tradition-bound, conserv­ative and orthodox in thinking. The dignity of physical labour – a key aspect of jobs at the bottom of the status hierarchy – is nearly absent in the work ethic of the caste system and hence impacts the incentive to work in adverse ways. Remedies against Discrimination Lal, Deepak (1989): The Hindu Equilibrium: Volume I: Cultural Stability and Economic Stagnation – India c 1500BC-AD1980, Clarendon Press, Oxford. They make use of research techniques pioneered in the US to measure discrimination in quantitative terms and to identify attitudes and beliefs through qualitative means that contribute to discriminatory patterns of hiring on the part of participants in the matching process (employers and job seekers). It is a place of great beauty, soaked with the history of many kinds of inequality, including caste and poverty, but also of resistance to such inequality. From this perspective, labour and other markets generally work in a neutral manner and access to job and other markets is therefore determined by merit and efficiency alone. An Ex Post Evaluation of Voluntary Retirement Scheme in BALCO – Babu P Ramesh, Labour and Closure of a Mill: Lives of Workers of a Closed Factory in Kanpur – Manali Chakrabarti, on Labour:A Marxist Perspective – Anjan Chakrabarti, Byasdeb Dasgupta, Hitkari House, 284, Shahid Bhagatsingh Road, Mumbai 400 001 email: circulation@epw.org.in, New 3 Month Subscription Discrimination is clearly a particular kind of exclusion and it can take on an active or a passive form. By improving agricultural productivity it would have directly alleviated poverty by the hundreds of millions (just like in China did in the 1990s). The former are not amenable to alteration as a consequence of individual agency and cannot, therefore, be regarded in any fashion as a matter of personal responsibility. Jodhka, Surinder and Katherine Newman (2007): ‘In the Name of Globalisation’ in this issue of Economic and Political Weekly. Each religion is sub-divided into different castes and these castes again into sub-castes. Members of the same caste, who were previously not much in touch with each other, are now able to establish intimate relationships. Some of the ill-effects of casteism are as follows: i. Casteism perpetuates the practice of untouchability and becomes an obstacle in providing social equality and justice. Entitlements to economic rights become narrower and narrower the farther down the hierarchical ladders of the caste system. In the Indian context, exclusion revolves around institutions that discriminate, isolate, shame, and deprive subordinate groups on the basis of identities like caste, religion and gender. Indian and UK Customer Service Workers’ Therefore pressure on firms, will self-correct discriminatory behaviour. 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